Brain And Spine Trauma

Traumatic brain injury and spine trauma commonly known as head injury or spinal injury are a diverse range of conditions which can be mild to severe. Patients may recover within few days or end up being comatose, paralytic or dead.

Head Injuries

It may be the result of road traffic accidents, fall from height, slip and fall at home ,assault injuries etc. They can classified as mild , moderate or severe based on the assessment scale -Glasgow coma scale. Depending on the Clinical condition of the patient , his/her CT brain findings the severity of the head injury is classified.

Based on the CT brain findings a variety of types of bleeds in the brain are mentioned.

The commonly mentioned findings are :


2.Diffuse axonal injury

3.Extra dural hematoma

4.Subdural hematoma


Based on the size of the clot, brain swelling etc patient may be managed medically or surgically. Patient will need medications to reduce brain swelling , reduce the risk of fits, stop the bleeding, supportive feeding , fluids , physiotherapy ,ventilatory support etc. The duration of hospital stay, medication or outcome depends on the initial clinical condition of the patient, CT scan findings and treatment. 

Hematomas ( Clots ) large in size ill require surgery to remove  the bleed and stop bleeding and also decrease the pressure in brain.Surgery can range from putting holes in the skull to evacuate the bleed or opening a portion of the skull to remove the clot. Sometimes the bone flap may have to be removed or placed in the abdomen or thigh for some period of time to relive the pressure in brain 

Acute Subdural Haematoma

Extradural Haematoma

Depressed fracture with csf leak -ACF carpetting,elevation
and fixation