Spine Surgery

Surgery for spine is done for a diverse range of conditions.Some of the conditions that require surgery are 

1.Disc prolapse – cervical,thoracic or lumbar

2.Spondylolisthesis – Slip of one vertebra over other

3.Fractures- due to trauma, infections, tumors

4.Spinal tumors

5.Scoliosis/ spinal deformity 

6.Degenerative conditions of spine  

7.Craniovertebral junction pathologies 

Surgery for spine involves removing the offending element ( that which may be compressing the spinal cord or nerves) and thereby relieving neurological symptoms like pain, tingling and numbnesss, weakness , bowel and bladder symptoms etc. Also after removing or correcting the abnormality , fusion of the adjacent segments of the spine may be required for giving stability .It may be in the form of using implants like titanium plates and screws, titanium rods and screws, spacers, artificial discs,bone grafts etc.

Some of the common procedures that are done for spine are mentioned below .Surgery can be in the form of open surgery or  minimally invasive spine surgery -using radiological guidance, microscope or endoscope .

 You can find some of the procedures done below 



Discs are soft materials which are present between the spine bones. They help in maintaining our range of movements.Sometimes due to lifting heavy weight, fall, prolonged sitting or working in forward bent position or due to wear and tear due to aging they may slip out from the normal position.They may be mild ( disc bulge), moderate ( disc protrusion) or severe ( disc extrusion).

The clinical symptoms include low back ache radiating to legs , tingling and numbness in one or both legs, weakness of leg or foot and sometimes bowel and bladder symptoms.

The treatment may vary from medical management plus rest and physiotherapy to surgery .Depending on the severity of disc prolapse and patient’s response to medical treatment and neurological findings a decision is taken.Most disc bulges can be managed medically.Most disc extrusions will require surgery .For disc protrusions without severe neurological symptoms or signs a conservative trial of 6-8 weeks of medical management can be tried before advising surgery.

The following surgical options are available :

1.Open surgery- Laminectomy and discectomy

2.Microscopic discectomy

3. Endoscopic discectomy 

Lumbar Disc Prolapse

Laminectomy and discectomy

Endoscopic Discectomy